Socioeconomic and Religious Tension Mitigate Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan


  • Amin Ullah khan PhD Scholar, School of Economics and Management, Chang'an University, Xi'an, China.
  • Aruba Kalanchvi Lecturer, Department of Business Finance, Institute of Business, Management & Administrative Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Bilal Alam Associate Professor, Government Post Graduate College, Mandian, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Arslan Iqbal PhD Scholar, School of Accounting, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan, China.



Socioeconomic, Religious Tension, Exchange Rate, ARDL, NARDL, Pakistan


The study investigated the socioeconomic and religious tension effect on the exchange rate of Pakistan. As well as ethnic tension, law and order, political and government stability. For this purpose, use time series data and time period 1996-2017. The econometric approach ARDL and NARDl approaches are used. The study findings, Socioeconomic conditions, government, political stability, and law and order are positive and statistically significant. Thus, the religious and ethnic factors are also negative and statistically significant. In the case of NARDL, the projected variables are positive and negative, with a significant impact on the exchange rate of Pakistan. The study suggests the government and political stability of the state. As well as reduce ethnic and religious issues in appropriate ways, such as by increasing religious education and declining ethnic hatred.


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How to Cite

khan, A. U., Kalanchvi, A., Alam, B., & Iqbal, M. A. (2023). Socioeconomic and Religious Tension Mitigate Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan. Qlantic Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 152-162.

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