Unveiling the Shadows: Understanding Social and Demographic Awareness of Migrant Smuggling in Pakistan


  • Salman Azam Joiya Assistant Professor, Lahore Business School, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Hassan Danish Assistant Professor, School of Commerce and Accountancy, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Zubair Ahmad PhD Scholar, Libera Università 'Mediterranean (LUM - Libera Università Mediterranea "Giuseppe Degennaro", Bari, Italy.
  • Hira Ijaz Lecturer, Department of English, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.




Migrant Smuggling, Illegal Migration, Order Logit, Pakistan


Migration as a social issue has gained importance for the government and the people. Illegal migration has caused thousands of people to die due to unawareness of its consequences. Therefore, the present study highlights the socio-economic determinants of awareness of migrant smuggling by taking data from 660 people from Punjab, Pakistan. The paper has made use of descriptive analyses and ordered logit regression analysis to determine the awareness level. The findings of the study have found a significant impact of education, people living in urban areas, people from high social classes, frequency of information, and source of information from peer groups, social media and newsletters on the level of awareness. The study recommends that increasing the level of awareness requires an active role for state agencies and civil society. The government can make use of media, especially electronic media, to launch information campaigns and rapidly transfer knowledge to the general public.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Muhammad Hassan Danish, Assistant Professor, School of Commerce and Accountancy, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.


Abowd, J. M., & Freeman, R. B. (1991). Immigration, trade, and the labor market. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226000961.001.0001

Allsopp, J., Vosyliūtė, L., & Brenda Smialowski, S. (2021). Picking ‘low-hanging fruit’ while the orchard burns: The costs of policing humanitarian actors in Italy and Greece as a strategy to prevent migrant smuggling. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 27(1), 65-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-020-09465-0

Alpes, M. J., & Nyberg Sorensen, N. (2015). Migration risk campaigns are based on wrong assumptions. DIIS. http://dx.doi.org/http://www.diis.dk/files/media/documents/publications/DIIS%20PB%20Migration%20campaigns_web.pdf

Associates, T. A. (1989a). Research report: California immigration survey. Houston, TX.

Associates, T. A. (1989b). Research report: Texas immigration and border security study. Houston, TX.

Azage, M., Abeje, G., & Mekonnen, A. (2014). Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir DAR town, north-west Ethiopia: A community based study. BMC Women's Health, 14(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-14-85

Barker, C. (2013). The People Smugglers' Business Model. Parliamentary Library. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/30677373.pdf

Bemmel, V. (2015). Informing potential migrants about the risks of unauthorized migration: The perception of risk among prospective migrants in Ghana. (Masters), University of Amsterdam.

Bilger, V., Hofmann, M., & Jandl, M. (2006). Human smuggling as a transnational service industry: Evidence from Austria. International Migration, 44(4), 59-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2006.00380.x

Bishop, R. A., Morgan, C. V., & Erickson, L. (2013). Public awareness of human trafficking in Europe: How concerned are European citizens? Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 11(2), 113-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2013.759047

Bogdan, L. (2020). Public perception of human trafficking: A case study of Moldova. Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-020-00201-5

Borjas, G. J., & Freeman, R. B. (1992). Immigration and the work force. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226066707.001.0001

Breines, M., Collyer, M., Lutterbeck, D., Mainwaring, C., Mainwaring, D., & Monzini, P. (2015). A Study on smuggling of migrants: characteristics, responses and cooperation with third countries. Case Study 2: Ethiopia–Libya–Malta/Italy. Project Report. European Commission DG Migration & Home Affairs. https://eprints.gla.ac.uk/140154/

Browne, E. (2015). Impact of communication campaigns to deter irregular migration. Governance and Social Development Resource Centre Helpdesk Research Report, 1248.

Buckler, K. (2008). Public opinion on illegal immigration: A test of seven core hypotheses. Journal of Crime and Justice, 31(1), 113-147. https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648x.2008.9721246

Cameron, A. C., & Trivedi, P. K. (2005). Microeconometrics: methods and applications: Cambridge university press.






How to Cite

Joiya, S. A., Danish, M. H., Ahmad, Z., & Ijaz, H. (2023). Unveiling the Shadows: Understanding Social and Demographic Awareness of Migrant Smuggling in Pakistan. Qlantic Journal of Social Sciences, 4(4), 285-296. https://doi.org/10.55737/qjss.794632661

Similar Articles

1-10 of 184

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)