School Uniform Influences Students’ Social Adjustment in the Community at Secondary School Level in District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


  • Abdul Basit Khan Doctoral Student, School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China.
  • Javed Mustafa Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
  • Nasir Ali Doctoral Student, School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China.
  • Tanveer Ahmad Doctoral Student, School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China.
  • Mir Ruhal Postgraduate student of the School of Philosophy, Shaanxi Normal University Chang'an, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.



School Uniform, Social Adjustment, Students , Secondary School Level, Community


In every aspect of daily life, uniforms are fundamental. When we meet someone, we tend to judge them based on their uniform, such as a nurse's outfit, a labor’s uniform, or a military uniform. "School uniform influences students’ social adjustment at secondary school level in district Bannu, KPK, Pakistan" is the main focus of this study. Due to its descriptive nature, a survey approach was used. The population of the study is 8073 male students enrolled in district Bannu's Government Secondary Schools. The applied sampling technique was a stratified random sampling technique. Five hundred respondents were selected as a sample, and the data was calculated using the John Curry (1984) formula. The "Five Point Likert Scale" was employed in a self-created survey instrument. The researcher made 41 statements and requested a panel of ten educational experts for validation. The researcher gave the questionnaire to fifty students. Utilized SPSS's Cranach alpha to assess the questionnaire's reliability. Overall, Cranach's Alpha was .83. Out of all 30 items that remained for the data collection, 11 were irrelevant because their "corrected item-total correlation" standards were less than .25. To find out "school uniform" and "social adjustment," frequency and percentage were employed. The effect was ascertained by Simple Linear Regression, which shows that school uniforms significantly influence students' social adjustment in the community at the secondary school level in the Bannu district.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Abdul Basit Khan, Doctoral Student, School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China.


Archibold, R. C. (1998, February 26). Advocates of School Uniform Plan Enlist Children to Help Make Their Case. New York Times.

Ballard, J. (2018, August 27). What American parents think of school uniforms. YouGov.

Brobeck, E., (2018). School Uniform Requirements: Effects on Student Academic Performance.

Brunsma, D. L. (2004). The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us about American Education: A Symbolic Crusade. R&L Education.

Bodine, A. (2003). School Uniforms, Academic Achievement, and Uses of Research. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(2), 67–71.

Dulin, C. D. (2016). Impact of school uniforms on student discipline and the learning climate: A comparative case study of two middle schools with uniform dress codes and two middle schools without uniform dress codes. North Carolina State University.

Dupper, D. R. (2010). A new model of school discipline.

Evans, D., Evans, D., Kremer, M., & Ngatia, M. (2008). The impact of distributing school uniforms on children's education in Kenya (p. 40). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Evans, D. K., & Ngatia, M. (2020). School Uniforms, Short-Run Participation, and Long-Run Outcomes: Evidence from Kenya. The World Bank Economic Review, 35(3), 705–719.

Figlio, D. N. (2007). Boys named Sue: disruptive children and their peers. Education Finance and Policy, 2(4), 376–394.

Fitch, F. B. (1969). A method for avoiding the curry paradox. In Springer eBooks (pp. 255–265).

Gaviria, A., & Raphael, S. (2001). School-Based peer Effects and Juvenile behavior. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(2), 257–268.

Gentile, E., & Imberman, S. A. (2009). Dressed for success: Do school uniforms improve student behavior, attendance, and achievement?Houston: University of Houston.

Golann, J. W. (2015). The Paradox of Success at a No-Excuses School. Sociology of Education, 88(2), 103–119.

Heckman, J. J., & Rubinstein, Y. (2001). The Importance of Noncognitive Skills: Lessons from the GED Testing Program. The American Economic Review, 91(2), 145–149.

Hardy, I., & Woodcock, S. (2015). Inclusive education policies: Discourses of difference, diversity and deficit. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19(2), 141–164.

Huss, J.A. (2007). The role of school uniforms in creating an academically motivating climate: Do uniforms influence teacher expectations? Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 1, 31-39.

Imberman, S., Kugler, A., & Sacerdote, B. (2009). Katrina’s Children: Evidence on the Structure of Peer Effects from Hurricane Evacuees.

Jacob, B. A. (2002). Where the boys aren't: Non-cognitive skills, returns to school and the gender gap in higher education. Economics of Education Review, 21(6), 589-598.

Johnson, W. S. (2010). Analyses of the impact of school uniforms on violence in North Carolina public high schools. East Carolina University.

Heckman, J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The effects of cognitive and Noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(3), 411-482.

Jones, A. B., Richardson, M. J., Jensen, B. T., & Whiting, E. F. (2020). Perceptions of school uniforms in relation to socioeconomic statuses. RMLE Online, 43(6), 1-13.

Kleene, S. C. (1936). H. B. Curry. First properties of functionality in combinatory logic. The Tôhoku mathematical journal, Vol. 41 (1936), pp. 371–401. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 1(2), 65-65.

Kleene, S. C. (1952). Haskell B. Curry. A simplification of the theory of combinators. Synthese, Vol. 7 (1948–1949), pp. 391–399. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 17(1), 76-76.

Kremer, M., Miguel, E., & Thornton, R. (2004). Incentives to learn.

MacBeath, J., & Mortimore, P. (2001). Improving school effectiveness. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

López, C. (2003). Materials Aspects of Photonic Crystals. Advanced Materials, 15(20), 1679–1704.

Murray, R. K. (1997). The impact of school uniforms on school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 81(593), 106–112.

Reidy, J. (2021). Reviewing School Uniform through a Public Health Lens: Evidence about the Impacts of School Uniform on Education and Health. Public Health Reviews, 42.

Rosser, B. (1942). Haskell B. Curry. A formalization of recursive arithmetic. American Journal of mathematics, Vol. 63 (1941), pp. 263–282. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 7(1), 42-42.

Sabic-El-Rayess, A., Mansur, N. N., Batkhuyag, B., & Otgonlkhagva, S. (2019). School uniform policy’s adverse impact on equity and access to schooling. Compare, 50(8), 1122–1139.

Steinberg, J. (1998, February 12). Guilianai Says He Supports Plan for Requiring School Uniforms. New York Times.

Underwood, R., Bond, E., & Baer, R. (2001). Building service brands via social identity: Lessons from the sports marketplace. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(1), 1-13.

VanMater, L. A. B. (2003). A study to describe perceptions of administrators, teachers, students, and parents about the changes in behavior in schools that implemented a school uniform policy. University of La Verne.

Wang, Y., & Lee, H. (2018).School Uniforms and Student Sense of Belonging: A Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(4), 431-445.

Wade, K., & Stafford, M.E. (2003). Public School Uniforms. Education and Urban Society, 35, 399-420.






How to Cite

Khan, A. B., Mustafa, J., Ali, N., Ahmad, T., & Ruhal, M. (2024). School Uniform Influences Students’ Social Adjustment in the Community at Secondary School Level in District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Qlantic Journal of Social Sciences, 5(2), 291-300.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 131

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.