Type D Personality and Psychological Distress: A Correlational Study among Coronary Heart Disease Patients


  • Rabia Batool Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Muslim Youth University, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0802-1581
  • Arfa Mubeen Research Assistant, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5848-6598
  • Shabnam Halim M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Psychology, National University of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Laiba Ikram BS Graduate, Department of Psychology, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.




Type D Personality, Psychological Distress, Coronary Heart Diseases, Correlation, Gender Differences


The study aimed to explore the relationship between type D personality and psychological distress in coronary heart disease patients. It was proposed that people having type D personality are more likely to have psychological distress, which ultimately leads to coronary heart disease. One hundred fifty heart disease patients were included in the test of the hypotheses. There were 90 men and 60 women aged 45 years and above from different heart disease hospitals took part in the study. For data collection, along with the consent form and demographics sheet, Two scales were used i-e., A 14-item Type D Personality Scale was used to measure the Type D Personality, and a 10-item Psychological Distress Scale was used to assess the Psychological Distress among the selected sample. Statistical analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between type D personality and psychological distress among coronary heart patients. Furthermore, results also revealed that there were no significant differences found among men and women developing heart diseases in relation to type D personality and psychological distress. Heart diseases are increasing day by day, and they are reported as the “leading cause of death” all over the world. The current research focused on the association of type D personality and psychological distress among heart patients to highlight that both of these variables prevailed among the chosen sample.

Author Biography

  • Rabia Batool, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Muslim Youth University, Islamabad, Pakistan.


Belay, A. S., Guangul, M. M., & Asmare, W. N. (2021). Prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among nurses in public hospitals, Southwest, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study design. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 31(6). https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-48073/v1

Brotman, D. J., Golden, S. H., & Wittstein, I. S. (2007). The cardiovascular toll of stress. The Lancet, 370(9592), 1089–1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61305-1

Campbell, K. A., Madva, E. N., Villegas, A. C., Beale, E. E., Beach, S. R., Wasfy, J. H., Albanese, A. M., & Huffman, J. C. (2017). Non-cardiac Chest Pain: A Review for the Consultation-Liaison Psychiatrist. Psychosomatics, 58(3), 252–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2016.12.003

Denollet, J. (2000). Type D personality. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49(4), 255–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3999(00)00177-x

Denollet, J. (2005). DS14: Standard Assessment of Negative Affectivity, Social Inhibition, and Type D Personality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(1), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000149256.81953.49

Denollet, J., & Conraads, V. M. (2011). Type D personality and vulnerability to adverse outcomes in heart disease. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 78(Suppl_1), S13–S19. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.78.s1.02

Denollet, J., Schiffer, A. A., & Spek, V. (2010). A general propensity to psychological distress affects cardiovascular outcomes. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 3(5), 546-557. https://doi.org/10.1161/circoutcomes.109.934406

Gaidai, O., Cao, Y., & Loginov, S. (2023). Global Cardiovascular Diseases Death Rate Prediction. Current Problems in Cardiology, 48(5), 101622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2023.101622

Ghafoor, S., Sitwat, A., & Kausar, A. (2016). Translation of Kessler psychological distress scale-K10. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Centre for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan.

Giuliani, M., Santagostino Baldi, G., Capra, N., Bonomi, A., Marzorati, C., Sebri, V., Guiddi, P., Montorsi, P., Pravettoni, G., & Trabattoni, D. (2024). The heart-mind relationship in women cardiovascular primary prevention: The role of depression, anxiety, distress and Type-D personality in the 10-years cardiovascular risk evaluation. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2024.1308337

Gul, I., & Bhatti, R. A. (2009). Type D Personality, Psychological Distress, and Quality of Life in MI patients. In 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering: ICBBE,1-7. IEEE.

Juenger, J. (2002). Health related quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with other chronic diseases and relation to functional variables. Heart, 87(3), 235–241. https://doi.org/10.1136/heart.87.3.235

Lin, I-Mei., Wang, S.-Y., Chu, I-Hua., Lu, Y.-H., Lee, C.-S., Lin, T.-H., & Fan, S.-Y. (2016). The Association of Type D personality with Heart Rate Variability and Lipid Profiles Among Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-016-9571-x

Mols, F., & Denollet, J. (2010). Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 8(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-8-9

Murphy, B., Grande, M. L., Alvarenga, M., Worcester, M., & Jackson, A. (2020). Anxiety and Depression After a Cardiac Event: Prevalence and Predictors. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(10). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03010

Pelle, A. J., Ruud A.M. Erdman, Ron, Spiering, M., Marten Kazemier, & Pedersen, S. S. (2008). Type D Patients Report Poorer Health Status Prior to and After Cardiac Rehabilitation Compared to Non-Type D Patients. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 36(2), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9057-4

Pelle, A. J., Schiffer, A. A., Smith, O. R., Widdershoven, J. W., & Denollet, J. (2010). Inadequate consultation behavior modulates the relationship between Type D personality and impaired health status in chronic heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology, 142(1), 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.12.086

Perros, P., Nagy, E. V., Papini, E., Abad-Madroñero, J., Lakwijk, P., Poots, A. J., Mols, F., & Hegedüs, L. (2024). Hypothyroidism and Type D Personality: Results From E-MPATHY, a Cross-sectional International Online Patient Survey. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism/Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgae140

Rosengren, A., Hawken, S., Ôunpuu, S., Sliwa, K., Zubaid, M., Almahmeed, W. A., Blackett, K. N., Sitthi-amorn, C., Sato, H., & Yusuf, S. (2004). Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11 119 cases and 13 648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. The Lancet, 364(9438), 953–962. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(04)17019-0

Stafford, L., Berk, M., Reddy, P., & Jackson, H. J. (2007). Comorbid depression and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62(4), 401–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.12.009

Svansdottir, E., van den Broek, K. C., Karlsson, H. D., Gudnason, T., & Denollet, J. (2012). Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-42

Thombs, B. D., de Jonge, P., Coyne, J. C., Whooley, M. A., Frasure-Smith, N., Mitchell, A. J., Zuidersma, M., Eze-Nliam, C., Lima, B. B., Smith, C. G., Soderlund, K., & Ziegelstein, R. C. (2008). Depression screening and patient outcomes in cardiovascular care: a systematic review. JAMA, 300(18), 2161. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2008.667

Tuman, T. C. (2022). The effect of type D personality on anxiety, depression and fear of COVID-19 disease in healthcare workers. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 77(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2021.1952152

Xu, L., Zhai, X., Shi, D., & Zhang, Y. (2024). Depression and coronary heart disease: Mechanisms, interventions, and treatments. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1328048






How to Cite

Batool, R., Mubeen, A., Halim, S., & Ikram, L. (2024). Type D Personality and Psychological Distress: A Correlational Study among Coronary Heart Disease Patients. Qlantic Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(2), 39-45. https://doi.org/10.55737/qjssh.775135370

Similar Articles

1-10 of 40

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.