Teachers’ Use of Code Switching to Pashto Language in Classroom Discussion: Experiences of non-Pashto Speaking Students in University of Peshawar


  • Uzma Dayan Lecturer, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1462-5768
  • Aaima Jameel M.Phil. Scholar, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.




Code Switching, Pashto Language, Learning Barriers, Linguistically Diverse Classrooms, Pakistan


The purpose of the study was to explore the learning experiences of non-Pashto speaking students, which ensued due to teachers’ code switching to Pashto language at University of Peshawar. Employing qualitative methods, the objectives of the study included: exploring perceptions of students about teachers’ use of code switching on non-Pashto speaking students’ learning; analyzing the difficulties students’ face; and exploring strategies that students use to overcome the barriers of language in learning. Population of the study consisted of students of University of Peshawar. Using snowball sampling technique, 25 participants were selected from three faculties of University of Peshawar. The data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis technique. Findings of the study reveal that some teachers code switch to Pashto, the local language which creates barriers in learning for the non-Pashto speaking students.  This code switching affects students’ academically, behaviorally and emotionally.  Consequently, students face an obstructive classroom climate, which severely influences their level of attention and interest and results in their non-participative role in class. The study recommends considering inclusive education principles in linguistically diverse classrooms, so that all the students are treated and benefited equally. Moreover, it suggests that teachers adhere to the National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan (NPSTs) to enhance learning effectiveness.

Author Biography

  • Uzma Dayan, Lecturer, Institute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


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How to Cite

Dayan, U., & Jameel, A. (2024). Teachers’ Use of Code Switching to Pashto Language in Classroom Discussion: Experiences of non-Pashto Speaking Students in University of Peshawar. Qlantic Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(2), 121-133. https://doi.org/10.55737/qjssh.591399401

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